History 401: Roman Imperialism
SIMS 241; Time: Mondays, 3:00-6:00 PM
Section Number: M006
Class Number: 31274


Craige B. Champion, Assistant Professor of History
Office Hours: Mondays 1:00-2:45 PM and 6:00-7:00 PM; Tuesdays 1:30-3:30 PM
Office: Maxwell 306; Extension: 1264


Course Objectives | Books to Buy | Books on Reserve | Schedule of Assignments | Paper Bibliographies

Course Description
This is a research and writing course.  Each student will conduct research and write a paper of 20-30 pages on some aspect of Roman imperialism.  We spend the first few weeks  in three areas: 1) readings and lectures on the general historical evolution of the Roman Empire; 2) readings, lecture, and discussion of the concept of "imperialism"; and 3) readings and discussion of ancient primary sources on and modern interpretations of Roman imperialism.  Thereafter, individually each student will begin to focus on her or his own research topic.  We will build up to the final draft in stages, with write-ups of preliminary positions and rough drafts. Students will from time to time present the current state of their research.  Collectively we will focus on particular panel discussion topics (see below).  Students will lead discussions, either individually or in panels, on discussion topics.

Panel discussion topics are 1) Roman imperial motivations, 2) socio-economic consequences of Roman imperial success, 3) Roman ideology and government of empire, 4) ‘Romanization’, acculturation, and resistance, and 5) the nature of the imperial frontier.

The study of Roman history often leads to questions of the physical layout and topography of the ancient city of Rome. The classic topographical dictionary of Platner and Ashby (still very useful though dated in some respects) is now available via the on-line Perseus project web-site. Click here.

Course Objectives:
1) To further ability to conduct large, independent research projects over the course of a semester (including informed participation in in-class discussions, periodic oral reports on preliminary research, an oral presentation of the research topic, and the timely submission of the final written research paper). 
2) To have a firm grasp of the broad outlines of Roman history as they pertain to the question of Roman imperialism. 
3) To understand the major issues in scholarly discussions of the phenomenon of imperialism, and to be able to distinguish general distinctive features of ancient and modern imperialisms, as well as the specific historical characteristics of Roman imperialism.   
4) To be able to formulate a definition and to discuss the concept of imperialism 
in your own language
.  
5) To develop a sense that Roman history is fascinating and fun!  

Books to Buy:
The texts are available for History 401 at 
Follett's Orange Book Store, Marshall Square Mall:
Livy, Rome and Italy (Penguin Books, 1982) ISBN: 0-14-044388-6.

Polybius, The Rise of the Roman Empire (Penguin Books, 1979) ISBN: 0-14-044362-2.

John Rich and Graham Shipley, eds. War and Society in Republican Rome (New York and London: Routledge, 1993) ISBN: 0-415-12167-1.

Michael W. Doyle, Empires (Ithaca and London: Cornell UP, 1986) ISBN: 0-8014-9334-X.

Books on Reserve (E.S. Bird Library):
M. Gelzer, Caesar: Politician and Statesman, trans. P. Needham (Cambridge, Mass., 1968) call number DG261.G414 1968 

E.S. Gruen, The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome (Berkeley, Los Angeles,    and London: University of California Press, 1984) vol. 1 call number DG241.2G781984v.1

E.S. Gruen, "The Imperial Policy of Augustus," in Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and His Principate, K. Raaflaub and M. Toher, eds.  (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1990) 395-416 call number DG279.B43 1990 

W.V. Harris, War and Imperialism in Republican Rome, 327-70 BC (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979) call number: DG231.3.H3

J.A. Hobson, Imperialism: A Study (Ann Arbor: UMich Press, [1965]) call number JN276.H7 1965

V.I. Lenin, Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism (New York: International Publishers, [1969]) call number DK254.L3.I62 1969

J.A. Schumpeter, Imperialism and Social Classes (New York: Meridian, [1955])

H.H. Scullard, From the Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome from 133 BC to AD 68 (London: Methuen, 1965) call number: DG254.S351965a

Schedule of Assignments

8/27
Introduction
Discussion of the Study and Methods of Ancient History
Lecture: An Introduction to Roman Imperialism (PowerPoint)
Lecture html (click here)  
Discussion of the Conception of Imperialism
Readings for Next Meeting: Hobson, Imperialism, 15-93; Lenin, Imperialism, 16-67; Schumpeter, Imperialism and Social Classes, 3-130
Individual Assignment: Report on Hobson
Individual Assignment: Report on Lenin
Individual Assignment: Report on Schumpeter

9/3 
Labor Day--No Classes

9/7 (make-up class for 9/3)
Report on Hobson 
Report on Lenin
Lecture: Early Rome and the Beginnings of Roman Imperialism (PowerPoint)
Lecture html (click here)
Report on Schumpeter
Discussion of Hobson, Lenin, and Schumpeter
Readings for Next Meeting: Livy, Rome and Italy, 11-34, 37-156; Doyle, Empires, 11-47
Individual Assignment: Livy, Rome and Italy, 11-34; report to class on Livy as historian and the background and nature of his work
Individual Assignment: Report on Doyle, Empires, 11-47

9/10
Report on Livy as historian and the background and nature of his work
Discussion of Livy, Rome and Italy, 37-156
Lecture: The Latin League and the Unification of Italy (PowerPoint) 
Lecture html (click here)
Report on Doyle, Empires, 11-47
Further Discussion of Doyle, Empires, 11-47
Readings for Next Meeting: Livy, Rome and Italy, 157-288; Doyle, Empires, 82-103
Individual Assignment: Report on Livy and the Samnite Wars
Individual Assignment: Doyle, Empires, 54-122; compare the Roman Empire with Sparta, Athens, the Ottoman, Spanish, and English empires

9/17
Report on Doyle, Empires, 54-122
Lecture: Domestic Crises and the Struggle of the Orders (PowerPoint)
Lecture html (click here)
Report on Livy and the Samnite Wars
Readings for Next Meeting: Livy, Rome and Italy, 289-356; Oakley, "Roman Conquest of Italy," in War and Society in Republican Rome, 9-37
Individual Assignment: Report on Livy and Livian speeches
Individual Assignment: Report on Oakley, "Roman Conquest"

9/24
Report on Livy and Livian speeches
Report on Oakley, "Roman Conquest"
Lecture: Imperial Preparations: The Pyrrhic and First Punic Wars (PowerPoint)
Lecture html (click here)
Readings for Next Meeting: Polybius, The Rise of the Roman Empire, 41-147; Ziolkowski, "Urbs direpta," in War and Society in Republican Rome, 69-91 
Individual Assignment: Report on Ziolkowski, "Urbs direpta"

10/1
TOPIC STATEMENT DUE
LIBRARY SESSION with PAMELA THOMAS, USER EDUCATION COORDINATOR (BIRD LIBRARY)
Report on Ziolkowski, "Urbs direpta"
Lecture: Hannibal at the Gates: The Second Punic War and the Contest for Mediterranean Supremacy (PowerPoint)
Lecture html (click here)
(Time Permitting) Discussion of Polybius, The Rise of the Roman Empire, 41-147
Readings for Next Meeting: Polybius, The Rise of the Roman Empire, 178-290; William V. Harris, War and Imperialism in Republican Rome, 9-53; Erich S. Gruen, The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome, 1-53 (on reserve under History 401: Ancient History) 
Individual Assignment: Report on Harris, War and Imperialism, 9-53
Individual Assignment: Report on Erich S. Gruen, The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome, 1-53  

10/8
Report on Harris, War and Imperialism, 9-53
Report on Gruen, HWCR, 1-53
Lecture: The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome (PowerPoint)
Lecture html (click here)
Discussion of Polybius, The Rise of the Roman Empire, 178-290
Readings for Next Meeting: H.H. Scullard, From the Gracchi to Nero, 1-87; Michael H. Crawford, "Rome and the Greek World: Economic Relationships," EconHistRev 39 (1977) 42-52; John A. North, "The Development of Roman Imperialism," Journal of Roman Studies 71/72 (1981/2) 1-9 (xeroxed handouts)
Individual Assignments: Reports on Crawford and North 

10/15
Report on North
Report on Crawford
Lecture: The Warlords: The Roman Empire in the Late Republic (PowerPoint)
Lecture html (click here)
Readings for Next Meeting: H.H. Scullard, From the Gracchi to Nero, 88-158; M. Gelzer, Caesar: Politician and Statesman, 272-333; John Patterson, "Military Organization and Social Change in the Later Roman Republic," in War and Society in Republican Rome, 92-112 

10/22
Lecture: Julius Caesar and Roman Imperialism (PowerPoint)
Lecture html (click here)

Report or Discussion of Gelzer
Report or Discussion of Patterson
Readings for the Next Meeting: H.H. Scullard, From the Gracchi to Nero, 159-177, 215-250; T. Cornell, "The End of Roman Imperial Expansion," in War and Society in Republican Rome, 139-170; E.S. Gruen, "The Imperial Policy of Augustus," in Between Republic and Empire, 395-416; G. Woolf, "Roman Peace," in War and Society in Republican Rome, 171-194, D. Braund, "Piracy under the Principate and the Ideology of Imperial Eradication," in War and Society in Republican Rome, 195-212

10/29
Report or Discussion of Braund, "Piracy"
Lecture: The Augustan Principate and the End of Imperial Expansion (PowerPoint)
Lecture html (click here)
Discussion of Cornell, "End of Expansion"
Reports or Discussion of Woolf and Gruen
Readings for Next Meeting: John Rich, "Fear, Greed, and Glory: the Causes of Roman War-Making in the Middle Republic," in War and Society in Republican Rome, 38-68; Gruen, "Material Rewards" and Harris, "On War and Greed"; Documents (all in Reader for History 401: Ancient History)

11/5
IMPERIAL MOTIVATIONS
Panel Discussion of Readings
Research Paper Reports
Readings for Next Meeting: Rostovtzeff, Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire; Badian, Roman Imperialism; Hopkins, Conquerors and Slaves; Documents (all in Reader for History 401: Ancient History)

11/12
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF EMPIRE
Panel Discussion of Readings
Research Paper Reports
Readings for Next Meeting: Brunt, "Laus Imperii"; Lendon, Empire of Honour; Millar, Emperor in the Roman World; Documents (all in Reader for History 401: Ancient History)

11/19
IDEOLOGY AND GOVERNMENT OF EMPIRE
Panel Discussion of Readings
Research Paper Reports 
Readings for Next Meeting: Woolf, Becoming Roman; MacMullen, Enemies of the Roman Order; Wells, Barbarians Speak; Documents (all in Reader for History 401: Ancient History)

11/26
RESISTANCE AND "ROMANIZATION"
Panel Discussion of Readings
Research Paper Reports
Readings for Next Meeting: Luttwak, Grand Strategy; Isaac, Limits of Empire; Mattern, Rome and the Enemy; Documents (all in Reader for History 401: Ancient History) 

12/3
THE ROMAN IMPERIAL FRONTIER
Panel Discussion of Readings
Research Paper Reports
 
Bibliography for Possible Paper Topics

Some useful general reference works:
Cambridge Ancient History, 2d. ed (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) volumes 7.2-12.
M. Cary and H.H. Scullard, A History of Rome, 3rd ed. (New York: St. Martin's, 1978).
T. Cornell and J. Matthews, Atlas of the Roman World (New York: Facts on File, 1982).
M. Crawford, The Roman Republic (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978).
M. Crawford (ed.), Sources for Ancient History (Cambridge, London and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983).
J.A. Crook, Law and Life in Rome, 90 B.C.-A.D. 212 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1967).
Oxford Classical Dictionary, S. Hornblower et al. (eds.), 3rd ed. (Oxford 1996).
J. S. Wellington, Dictionary of Bibliographic Abbreviations Found in the Scholarship of Classical Studies and Related Disciplines (Westport, Conn. and London 1983).
C. Wells, The Roman Empire (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1984).

1. Earliest Imperialist Ventures: Etruscans and the Roman Regal Period
Livy, History of Rome, Book 1.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 1.30.1-3=RC I 2; 4.84.2-5=RC I 7.
Eutropius, Compendium of Roman History, 1.1-8=RC I 5.
Lewis & Reinhold, Sourcebook: RC I 8-12.
L. Bonfante, Etruscan Dress (Baltimore and London, 1975).
L. Bonfante, Etruscan Life and Afterlife: A Handbook of Etruscan Studies (Detroit, 1986).
T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars, c. 1000-264 B.C. (London and New York, 1995).
E. Gabba, Dionysius and the History of Archaic Rome (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and Oxford, 1991).
G. Miles, Livy: Reconstructing Early Rome (Ithaca, 1995).
R.E. Mitchell, Patricians and Plebeians: The Origins of the Roman State (Ithaca, 1990).
R.M. Ogilvie, Early Rome and the Etruscans (Atlantic Highlands, 1976).
M. Pallottino, The Etruscans (Baltimore, 1956).
R. Thomsen, King Servius Tullius: A Historical Synthesis (Copenhagen, 1980).
A. Toynbee, Hannibal's Legacy (London, New York, and Toronto, 1965), vol. I, 354-72.

2. Imperialism and Domestic Crises: The Struggle of the Orders
Livy, History of Rome, Books 6-10.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, Book 11.
Diodorus Siculus, Universal History, Books 11-20.
Cicero, On the Republic, Book 2.
Shelton, Sourcebook: S 2, 7-8, 15.
C. Champion, Review Article of Feig Vishnia, State, Society and Popular Leaders, Bryn Mawr Classical Review, 97.8.2.
T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars, c. 1000-264 B.C. (London and New York, 1995) especially pp. 242-92, 327-44.
E. Gabba, Dionysius and the History of Archaic Rome (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and Oxford, 1991).
M. Gelzer, The Roman Nobility, trans. R. Seager (Oxford, 1969).
G. Miles, Livy: Reconstructing Early Rome (Ithaca, 1995).
R.E. Mitchell, Patricians and Plebeians: The Origins of the Roman State (Ithaca, 1990).
R.M. Ogilvie, Early Rome and the Etruscans (Atlantic Highlands, 1976).
R.E.A. Palmer, The Archaic Community of the Romans (Cambridge, 1970).
K. Raaflaub (ed.), Social Struggles in Archaic Rome (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1986).
P.G. Walsh, Livy. His Historical Aims and Methods (Cambridge, 1970).
A. Watson, Rome of the XII Tables: Persons and Property (Princeton, 1976).

3. Road to Empire: The Punic Wars
Polybius, Histories, Books 1-2 (First Punic War); Books 3, 7-15 (Second Punic War).
Livy, History of Rome, Books 21-30 (Second Punic War).
N. Bagnall, The Punic Wars (London 1990).
E. Badian, Foreign Clientelae, 264-70 B.C. (Oxford, 1958) pp. 47-54.
J. Briscoe, "The Second Punic War." In Cambridge Ancient History, 2d ed., vol. 8 (Cambridge, 1989) pp. 44-80.
B. Caven, The Punic Wars (London 1980).
C. Champion, "Punic Wars." In Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, J.P. Rodriguez (ed.), vol. 2 (Santa Barbara, Denver and London, 1997) pp. 528-9.
T. Cornell, B. Rankov and Ph. Sabin, The Second Punic War: A Reappraisal (London, 1996).
T.A. Dorey and D.R. Dudley, Rome Against Carthage (Garden City, 1971).
R.M. Errington, The Dawn of Empire: Rome's Rise to World Power (London, 1972).
W.V. Harris, War and Imperialism in Republican Rome (Oxford, 1979).
L. Keppie, The Making of the Roman Army (London 1984).
J.F. Lazenby, Hannibal's War (Warminster, 1978).
J.F. Lazenby, The First Punic War: A Military History (Stanford, 1996).
D. Proctor, Hannibal's March in History (Oxford, 1971).
J.W. Rich, Declaring War in the Roman Republic in the Period of Transmarine Expansion (Brussels, 1976).
H.H. Scullard, Scipio Africanus in the Second Punic War (Cambridge, 1930).
H.H. Scullard, Scipio Africanus: Soldier and Politician (Ithaca, 1970).
G.V. Sumner, "Rome, Spain, and the Outbreak of the Second Punic War: Some Clarifications," Latomus 31 (1972) 469-80.
J.H. Thiel, History of Roman Sea Power Before the Second Punic War (Amsterdam, 1954).
A.J. Toynbee, Hannibal's Legacy, 2 vols. (London, New York and Toronto, 1965).

4. Imperialist Paranoia? The Bacchanalian Conspiracy
Livy, History of Rome, Book 25.1; 39.8-19 and 41; 40.19.
Polybius, Histories, 6.13.
Cicero, On the Laws, 2.37.
St. Augustine, City of God, 6.9.
R.A. Bauman, "The Suppression of the Bacchanals: Five Questions," Historia 39 (1990) 334-48.
A. Bruhl, Liber Pater (Paris, 1953) pp. 82-116 (in French).
G. Dumezil, Archaic Roman Religion (Chicago, 1970) II: pp. 407-31, 512-25.
E. Fraenkel, "Senatus Consultum de Bacchanalibus," Hermes 67 (1932) 369-96 (in German).
T. Frank, "The Bacchanalian Cult of 186 B.C.," Classical Quarterly 21 (1927) 128-32.
E.S. Gruen, "The Bacchanalian Affair." In Studies in Greek Culture and Roman Policy (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1990) pp. 34-78.
A.H. McDonald, "Rome and the Italian Confederation," Journal of Roman Studies 34 (1994) 11-33.
A.J. Toynbee, Hannibal's Legacy (London, New York and Toronto, 1965) II: pp. 387-402.
W.W. Fowler, The Religious Experience of the Roman People (London, 1911) pp. 335-56.

5. Cultural Imperialism? Hellenism at Rome
Polybius, Histories, Book 6.1-56.
Plutarch, Cato the Elder.
A.E. Astin, Cato the Censor (Oxford, 1978).
A.E. Astin, Scipio Aemilianus (Oxford, 1967).
E. Badian, Titus Quinctius Flamininus: Philhellenism and Realpolitik (Cincinnati, 1970).
S. Bonner, Education in Ancient Rome (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1977).
B. Forte, Rome and the Romans as the Greeks Saw Them (Rome, 1972).
E. Gabba, Dionysius and The History of Archaic Rome (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1991).
E.S. Gruen, The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1984).
E.S. Gruen, Culture and National Identity in Republican Rome (Ithaca, 1992).
E.S. Gruen, Studies in Greek Culture and Roman Policy (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1990).
J. Kaimio, The Romans and the Greek Language (Helsinki, 1979).
K. Lomas, Rome and the Western Greeks, 350 B.C.-A.D. 200 (London and New York, 1993).
H.I. Marrou, A History of Education in Antiquity (New York, 1956).
N. Petrocheilos, Roman Attitudes to the Greeks (Athens, 1974).
E. Rawson, Intellectual Life in the Late Roman Republic (Baltimore, 1985).
A. Wardman, Rome's Debt to Greece (New York, 1976).

6. Imperialism and the Democratization of Rome?
J. Briscoe, "Rome and the Class Struggle in the Greek World, 200-146 B.C.," Past & Present 36 (1967) 3-20.
P.A. Brunt, "The Roman Mob," Past & Present 35 (1966) 3-27.
C. Champion, Review Article of F. Pina Polo, Contra Arma Verbis. Bryn Mawr Classical Review, 97.3.36.
E.S. Gruen, "Class Conflict and the Third Macedonian War," American Journal of Ancient History 1 (1976) 29-60.
M. Jehne (ed.), Demokratie in Rom? Die Rolle des Volkes in der Politik der roemischen Republik (Stuttgart, 1995).
J.A.O. Larsen, "The Judgment of Antiquity on Democracy," Classical Philology 49 (1954) 1-14.
A.W. Lintott, "Electoral Bribery in the Roman Republic," Journal of Roman Studies 80 (1990) 1-16.
A.W. Lintott, "Imperial Expansion and Moral Decline in Rome," Historia 21 (1972) 626-38.
R. MacMullen, "How Many Romans Voted?," Athenaeum n.s. 58 (1980) 454-7.
F. Millar, "The Political Character of the Classical Roman Republic, 200-151 B.C.," Journal of Roman Studies 74 (1984) 1-19.
F. Millar, "Politics, Persuasion and the People before the Social War (150-90 B.C.)," Journal of Roman Studies 76 (1986) 1-11.
C. Nicolet, The World of the Citizen in Republican Rome (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1988) pp. 207-315.
W. Nippel, "Policing Rome," Journal of Roman Studies 74 (1984) 20-9.
J. North, "Democratic Politics in Republican Rome," Past & Present 126 (1990) 3-21.
J. North, "Politics and Aristocracy in the Roman Republic," Classical Philology 85 (1990) 277-87.
L.R. Taylor, "Forerunners of the Gracchi," Journal of Roman Studies 52 (1962) 19-27.
L.R. Taylor, Roman Voting Assemblies from the Hannibalic War to the Dictatorship of Caesar (Ann Arbor, 1966).
K.-W. Welwei, "Demokratie und Masse bei Polybios," Historia 15 (1966) 282-301 (in German).
A. Yakobson, "Petitio et Largitio: Popular Participation in the Centuriate Assembly of the Late Republic," Journal of Roman Studies 82 (1992) 32-52.

7. War and Imperialism in Republican Rome
Polybius, Histories, 1.11, 16, 20, 49, 83; 2.8, 12; 3.24-5, 28; 6.17, 56; 9.10; 10.16; 14.7; 18.35, 43-4; 21.2-5, 11, 14, 17, 22, 29-30, 32, 41, 43, 45; 23.9; 30.15, 20, 31; 31.22, 27; 32.13; 34.9.
Livy, History of Rome, 9.42; 10.46; 21.63 (lex Claudia); 22.33; 23.37, 48-9; 24.18, 42; 25.3-5; 26.16, 24, 34; 29.27; 31.30; 32.27; 33.10-11, 17, 29-30; 34.9, 35, 50; 35.41; 36.4; 37.60; 38.28-9, 43-4; 39.7, 44; 40.42, 51; 41.11, 28; 42.6, 8, 32, 63; 43.4-5, 7-8, 16; 45.18, 26, 29, 34; Epitome, 49.
Cicero, Verrine Orations, II.3.12, 5.45; On Duties, I.150-1, 2.76; On the Republic, 3.16; On the Agrarian Law, 2.87; On the Orator, 2.225.
Sallust, On the Catilinarian Conspiracy, 7.6; 51.5.
E. Badian, Foreign Clientelae, 264-70 B.C. (Oxford, 1958).
E. Badian, Publicans and Sinners: Private Enterprise in the Service of the Roman Republic (Ithaca, 1983).
E. Badian, Roman Imperialism in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1976).
K.R. Bradley, Slavery and Rebellion in the Roman World, 140 BC-70 BC (Bloomington 1998).
C. Champion, Review Article of M. Kostial, Kriegerisches Rom?, Bryn Mawr Classical Review, 97.2.8.
S. Dyson, The Creation of the Roman Frontier (Princeton, 1985).
A.M. Eckstein, "Human Sacrifice and Fear of Military Disaster in Republican Rome," American Journal of Ancient History 7 (1982) 69-95.
A.M. Eckstein, Senate and General: Individual Decision-Making and Roman Foreign Relations, 264-194 B.C. (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1987).
R.M. Errington, The Dawn of Empire: Rome's Rise to World Power (London, 1971).
T. Frank, Roman Imperialism (New York, 1914).
E.S. Gruen, The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1984).
W.V. Harris, "Towards a Study of the Roman Slave Trade," Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 36 (1980) 117-40.
W.V. Harris, War and Imperialism in Republican Rome (Oxford, 1979).
L. Keppie, The Making of the Roman Army (London 1984).
J.W. Rich, Declaring War in the Roman Republic in the Period of Transmarine Expansion (Brussels, 1976).
I. Shatzman, "The Roman General's Authority over Booty," Historia 21 (1972) 368-75.
C.H.V. Sutherland, The Romans in Spain (London, 1939).
J.H. Thiel, A History of Roman Sea Power Before the Second Punic War (Amsterdam, 1954).
A.J. Toynbee, Hannibal's Legacy (London, New York and Toronto, 1965).
G.R. Watson, The Roman Soldier (Ithaca 1969).

8. Tiberius Gracchus and the Empire: Reformer or Revolutionary?
Appian, Civil Wars, 1.1-20.
Plutarch, Tiberius Gracchus.
A.H.J. Greenidge and A.M. Clay, Sources for Roman History, 133-70 B.C., 2d ed. rev. E.W. Gray (Oxford, 1986) 1-24.
D.L. Stockton, From the Gracchi to Sulla: Sources for Roman History, 133-80 B.C. (London, 1981 [1991]).
A.E. Astin, Scipio Aemilianus (Oxford, 1967) pp. 190-241, 345-6.
E. Badian, Foreign Clientelae, 264-70 B.C. (Oxford, 1958) 168-79.
A.H. Bernstein, Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus: Tradition and Apostasy (Ithaca, 1978) pp. 71-230.
J. Briscoe, "Supporters and Opponents of Tiberius Gracchus," Journal of Roman Studies 64 (1974) 125-35.
P.A. Brunt, Italian Manpower, 225 B.C.-A.D. 14 (Oxford, 1971) pp. 15-25.
D.C. Earl, Tiberius Gracchus: A Study in Politics (Brussels, 1963) pp. 7-40, 66-119.
E.S. Gruen, Roman Politics and the Criminal Courts, 149-78 B.C. (Cambridge, Mass., 1968) pp. 45-78.
K.M. Moir, "Pliny HN 7.57 and the Marriage of Tiberius Gracchus," Classical Quarterly 33 (1983) 136-45.
P.W. deNeeve, Peasants in Peril: Location and Economy in Italy in the Second Century B.C. (Amsterdam, 1984).
J.W. Rich, "The Supposed Roman Manpower Shortage of the Later Second Century B.C.," Historia 32 (1983) 287-331.
J.S. Richardson, "The Ownership of Roman Land: Tiberius Gracchus and the Italians," Journal of Roman Studies 70 (1980) 1-11.
H.H. Scullard, From the Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68 (London and New York, 1982) pp. 1-33.
Y. Shochat, Recruitment and the Program of Tiberius Gracchus (Brussels, 1980) pp. 45-98.
D.L. Stockton, The Gracchi (Oxford and New York, 1979) pp. 6-86, 200-16.
L.R. Taylor, "Forerunners of the Gracchi," Journal of Roman Studies 52 (1962) 19-27.
L.R. Taylor, Roman Voting Assemblies from the Hannibalic War to the Dictatorship of Caesar (Ann Arbor, 1966).
A.J. Toynbee, Hannibal's Legacy (London, New York and Toronto, 1965) II.155-200, 296-312.

9. Imperialism and Warlords: The Sullan Program and Its Aftermath
Appian, Civil Wars, 1.95-121.
Plutarch, Marius, Sulla; Pompey 16-23; Crassus 6-12; Cicero 10.
Cicero, The Speech for Roscius Amerinus; First Verrine Oration.
[Ps.] Sallust, Orations of Lepidus, Philippus, Cotta; Letter of Pompey.
E. Badian, Foreign Clientelae, 264-70 B.C. (Oxford, 1958) pp. 245-84.
E. Badian, Publicans and Sinners: Private Enterprise in the Service of the Roman Republic (Ithaca, 1983).
E. Badian, "Waiting for Sulla," Journal of Roman Studies 52 (1962) 47-61.
E. Badian, Roman Imperialism in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1976).
P.A. Brunt, Italian Manpower, 225 B.C.-A.D. 14 (Oxford, 1971) pp. 294-312.
E. Gabba, Republican Rome, the Army and the Allies (Berkeley, 1976).
E.S. Gruen, Roman Politics and the Criminal Courts, 149-78 B.C. (Cambridge, Mass., 1968) pp. 248-78.
E.S. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, Los Angeles and London, 1974) pp. 6-46, 121-8.
L. Hayne, "M. Lepidus (cos. 78): A Reappraisal," Historia 21 (1972) 661-8.
T.J. Luce, "Marius and the Mithridatic Command," Historia 19 (1970) 161-94.
T.N. Mitchell, Cicero: The Ascending Years (New Haven, 1979) pp. 107-49.
E. Rawson, Cicero: A Portrait (Ithaca, 1983) pp. 22-43.
M. Rostovtzeff, Rome (Oxford, repr. 1975) pp. 105-16.
H.H. Scullard, From the Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68 (London and New York, 1982) pp. 81-98.
D.L. Stockton, Cicero: A Political Biography (London, 1971) pp. 15-20, 41-52.
D.L. Stockton, "The First Consulship of Pompey," Historia 22 (1973) 205-18.
A. Ward, Marcus Crassus and the Late Roman Republic (Columbia, Missouri, 1977) pp. 35-45, 99-112.

10. Imperial Transition: The Dictatorship and Assassination of Julius Caesar
Caesar, Civil War, 3.57.
Cicero, Letters to Atticus, 12.45; 13.26-8, 31, 37, 40, 44, 50-2; 14.1-2, 4, 6, 21; 15.3-4; Letters to His Friends, 4.4, 8-9, 13; 6.1, 6, 13, 18; 7.30; 9.15-17; 11.27; For Marcellus, 23-9; For Deiotarus, 33; Philippics, 1.3-4, 18-24, 32; 2.24-36, 71, 74, 84-91, 108-11, 116; 3.12; 5.38, 49; 7.16; 10.7; 13.17, 31, 40-1, 47.
Suetonius, Julius Caesar, passim, especially 37-45, 75-88.
Appian, Civil Wars, 2.106-17.
Livy, Epitome, 116.
Plutarch, Caesar, 51, 55-6; Brutus, 7-18; Antony, 6-7, 11-14.
Dio Cassius, Histories, 43.14, 19-27, 41-51; 44.1-20; 45.6-7.
Nicolaus of Damascus, FGrH F 130 (see me for help on this one).
Velleius Paterculus, Annales, 2.56-8.
J.P.V.D. Balsdon, "Auctoritas, Dignitas, Otium," Classical Quarterly n.s. 10 (1960) 43-50.
J.P.V.D. Balsdon, "The Ides of March," Historia 7 (1958) 80-94.
P.J. Cuff, "The Terminal Date of Caesar's Gallic Command," Historia 7 (1958) 445-72.
G.R. Elton, "The Terminal Date of Caesar's Gallic Proconsulate," Journal of Roman Studies 36 (1946) 18-42.
M. Gelzer, Caesar: Politician and Statesman, trans. P. Needham (Cambridge, Mass., 1968) pp. 272-333.
Th. Hastrup, "On the Date of Caesar's Commentaries of the Gallic War," Classica et Mediaevalia 18 (1957) 59-74.
T.R. Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (Oxford, 1911).
Chr. Meier, Caesar, trans. D. McLintock (New York, 1995).
E. Rawson, "Caesar's Heritage: Hellenistic Kings and Their Roman Equals," Journal of Roman Studies 65 (1975) 148-59.
E. Rawson, Intellectual Life in the Late Roman Republic (London, 1985).
J. Sabben-Clare, Caesar and Roman Politics, 60-50 B.C. (Oxford, 1971).
H.H. Scullard, From the Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68 (London and New York, 1982) pp. 148-58.
C.E. Stevens, "The Bellum Gallicum as a Work of Propaganda," Latomus 11 (1952) 3-18, 165-79.
C.E. Stevens, "The Terminal Date of Caesar's Command," American Journal of Philology 59 (1938) 169-208.
R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (Oxford, repr. 1987) pp. 47-96.
L.R. Taylor, Party Politics in the Age of Caesar (Berkeley, 1975).
L.R. Taylor, The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Chico, Calif., repr. 1981) pp. 58-99.
G.B. Townend, "A Clue to Caesar's Unfulfilled Intentions," Latomus 42 (1983) 601-6.
D. Wardle, " 'The Sainted Julius': Valerius Maximus and the Dictator," Classical Philology 92 (1997) 323-45.
S. Weinstock, Divus Julius (Oxford, 1971) pp. 270-363.
C. Wirszubski, Libertas as a Political Idea at Rome during the Late Republic and Early Principate (Cambridge, 1950).
Z. Yavetz, "Existimatio, Fama, and the Ides of March," Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 78 (1974) 35-65.
Z. Yavetz, Plebs and Princeps (New Brunswick, repr. 1988) pp. 38-82.
Z. Yavetz, Julius Caesar and His Public Image (Ithaca, 1983) pp. 58-213.

11. Stabilization of Empire: The Augustan Constitution
Augustus, Res Gestae ("The Accomplishments of Augustus")=RC I 195 (pp. 561-72).
RC I 210 (pp. 633-9).
Dio Cassius, Histories, 46.55; 48.54; 49.15; 50.1-2, 4, 6-7; 51.1, 19, 22; 53.1-22, 28-33; 54.1-3, 6, 8, 10-17.
Suetonius, Augustus, especially 7, 17, 28, 35, 47, 52, 56, 66; Tiberius, 8.
Velleius Paterculus, Annales, 2.89, 91, 93, 126.
Tacitus, Annals, 3.56.
Appian, Illyria, 28; Civil Wars, 4.7; 5.95, 132.
F.E. Adcock, Roman Political Ideas and Practice (Ann Arbor, 1966) pp. 71-104.
K.M.T. Atkinson, "Constitutional and Legal Aspects of the Trials of Marcus Primus and Varro Murena," Historia 9 (1960) 440-73.
G.W. Bowersock, "Augustus and the East: The Problem of the Succession." In Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects, F. Millar and E. Segal (eds.) (Oxford, 1990) pp. 169-88.
D.C. Braund, Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History, 31 B.C.-A.D. 68 (Totowa, 1985) pp. 175-227.
P.A. Brunt, "The Role of the Senate in the Augustan Regime," Classical Quarterly 34 (1984) 423-44.
C.W. Chilton, "The Roman Law of Treason under the Early Principate," Journal of Roman Studies 45 (1955) 73-81.
L.J. Daly, "Varro Murena, cos. 23 B.C. [magistratu motu] est," Historia 27 (1978) 83-94.
W. Eder, "Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire." In Between Republic and Empire: Augustus and His Principate, K. Raaflaub and M. Toher (eds.) (Berkeley, 1993) pp. 71-122.
M. Grant, From Imperium to Auctoritas: A Historical Study of Aes Coinage in the Roman Empire, 49 B.C.-A.D. 14 (Cambridge, repr. 1969) pp. 408-53.
M. Hammond, The Augustan Principate in Theory and Practice during the Julio-Claudian Period (New York, repr. 1969) pp. 19-84.
T.R. Holmes, Architect of the Roman Empire (New York, repr. 1977) I.171-86, 262-7; II.25-31, 38-9.
A.H.M. Jones, Augustus (New York and London, 1970) pp. 44-93.
W.K. Lacey, "Summi fastigii vocabulum: The Story of a Title," Journal of Roman Studies 69 (1979) 28-34.
W.K. Lacey, "Augustus and the Senate, 23 B.C.," Antichthon 19 (1985) 57-67.
E.S. Ramage, The Nature and Purpose of Augustus' Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987).
H.H. Scullard, From the Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68 (London and New York, 1982) pp. 215-35.
R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (Oxford, repr. 1987) pp. 313-48, 509-24.

12. The Gladiatorial Arena and the Question of the Romanization of the Empire

Augustus, Res Gestae, 22=RC I 195 (pp. 568-9).
Pliny, Natural History, 37.11=RC II 30 (pg. 118).
Pliny, Panegyricus, 33.
Cassius Dio, Histories, 75.2.3-6=RC II 104 (pg. 375).
Historia Augusta: Hadrian, 18.7-11=RC II 50 (pg. 181).
Florus, Epitome of Roman History, 1.47.1-13=RC I 96 (pp. 249-50).
RC I 132 (pg. 358: Aphrodias); see also under "Spectacles."
RC II 40 (pp. 142-9: "Bread and Circus Games"); RC II 74i (pg. 276).
CIL 14.3014=Dessau ILS 6252=RC II 73 (pg. 274).
Shelton, Sourcebook=S pp. 55, 91, 109, 182, 188, 332-5, 341, 342-6.
R. Auguet, Cruelty and Civilization: The Roman Games (London and New York, repr. 1994).
S. Brown, "Death as Decoration: Scenes from the Arena on Roman Domestic Mosaics." In Pornography and Representation in Greece and Rome (Oxford, 1992) pp. 180-211.
C. Barton, The Sorrows of the Ancient Romans (Princeton, 1993).
P.A. Brunt, "The Roman Mob," Past & Present 35 (1966) 3-27.
K.M. Coleman, "Fatal Charades: Roman Executions Staged as Mythological Enactments," Journal of Roman Studies 80 (1990) 44-73.
K.M. Coleman, "Launching into History: Aquatic Displays in the Early Empire," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993) 48-74.
A. Futtrell, Blood in the Arena: The Spectacle of Roman Power (Austin, 1997).
K. Hopkins, "Murderous Games." In Death and Renewal: Sociological Studies in Roman History (Cambridge, 1983) pp. 1-30.
P. Plass, The Game of Death in Ancient Rome (California, 1999).
D.G. Kyle, Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome (London and New York, 1998).
P. Veyne, Bread and Circuses: Historical Sociology and Political Pluralism, trans. B. Pearce (London and New York, 1992) pp. 221-2, 401, 466-7 n. 309.
Th. Wiedemann, Emperors and Gladiators (London and New York, 1992).

13. Empire and Slavery under the Julio-Claudian Emperors
Seneca, Letters, 47=Shelton, Sourcebook= S 198.
Tacitus, Annals, 13.26-7; 14.42-5.
Shelton, Sourcebook=S 183, 185-6, 188-9, 192-5, 197, 199, 207, 210-11, 221-2, 224, 299, 373.
RC I 165, 170 (pp. 491-2), 204 (pp. 604-7), 205; RC II 27 (AE pg. 109), 33i, 34 (pg. 130), 35, 76 (pg. 287 top).
K.R. Bradley, Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire: A Study in Social Control (Oxford, 1987) pp. 13-45.
C. Champion, "Columella." In The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery (Santa Barbara, Denver and Oxford, 1997) I.174-5.
C. Champion, "Moses Finley." In The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery (Santa Barbara, Denver and Oxford, 1997) I.268-9.
M.I. Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology (New York, 1980) pp. 11-66.
P. Garnsey and R.P. Saller, The Roman Empire: Economy, Society and Culture (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1987) pp. 107-59.
P. Garnsey, Social Status and Legal Privilege in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1970).
W.V. Harris, "Towards a Study of the Roman Slave Trade," Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 36 (1980) 117-40.
K. Hopkins, Conquerors and Slaves: Sociological Studies in Roman History (Cambridge, 1978) pp. 99-132.
R. MacMullen, Roman Social Relations, 50 B.C.-A.D. 284 (New Haven and London, 1974).
O. Patterson, Freedom in the Making of Western Culture (New York, 1991) pp. 1-44, 227-90.
B. Rawson and P. Weaver, The Roman Family in Italy: Status, Sentiment, Space (Canberra and Oxford, 1997).
S. Treggiari, "Domestic Staff at Rome during the Julio-Claudian Period," Histoire sociale/Social History 6 (1973) 241-55.
P.R.C. Weaver, Familia Caesaris: A Social Study of the Emperor's Freedmen and Slaves (Cambridge, 1972).
W.L. Westermann, The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity (Philadelphia, 1955).
Th. Wiedemann, Greek and Roman Slavery (Baltimore and London, 1981).

14. Roman Religion and Roman Statecraft
Polybius, Histories, 6.63 and 56.
F. Altheim, A History of Roman Religion (London, 1938).
G. Anderson, Sage, Saint, and Sophist: Holy Men and Their Associates in the Early Roman Empire (London and New York, 1994).
C. Bailey, Phases in the Religion of Ancient Rome (Berkeley, 1932).
M. Beard and J. North (eds.), Pagan Priests: Religion and Power in the Ancient World (Ithaca, 1989).
M. Beard, J. North, and S. Price, Roman Religions (Cambridge, 1998).
G. Dumezil, Archaic Roman Religion (Chicago, 1970).
D.R. Edwards, Religion and Power: Pagans, Jews, and Christians in the Greek East (New York [Oxford UP], 1996).
W.W. Fowler, The Religious Experience of the Roman People (London, 1911).
D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws, and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995).
J.H.W.G. Liebeschuetz, Continuity and Change in Roman Religion (Oxford, 1979).
G. Luck, Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds (Baltimore, 1985).
R. MacMullen, Paganism in the Roman Empire (New Haven, 1981).
A.K. Michels, The Calendar of the Roman Republic (Princeton, 1967).
R.M. Ogilvie, The Romans and Their Gods in the Age of Augustus (London, 1969).
E.M. Orlin, Temples, Religion, and Politics in the Roman Republic (Leiden, 1997).
R.E.A. Palmer, The Archaic Community of the Romans (Cambridge, 1970).
H.H. Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic (London, 1981).
J.-A. Shelton, As the Romans Did: A Sourcebook in Roman Social History (Oxford, 1988) 364-5, 370-1, 378-9.
F. Solmsen, Isis among the Greeks and Romans (Cambridge, Mass., 1979).
L.R. Taylor, The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, Conn., 1931).
J. Teixidor, The Pagan God: Popular Religions in the Greco-Roman Near East (Princeton, 1977).
M.J. Vermaseren, Cybele and Attis: The Myth and the Cult (London, 1977).
H. Wagenvoort, Pietas: Selected Studies in Roman Religion (Leiden, 1980).
A. Wardman, Religion and Statecraft among the Romans (Baltimore, 1982).
L.M. White, Building God's House in the Roman World: Architectural Adaptation among Pagans, Jews, and Christians (Baltimore, 1990).
R.E. Witt, Isis in the Graeco-Roman World (Ithaca, 1971).

15. Emperor Worship and the Roman Imperial Cult
G. Anderson, Sage, Saint, and Sophist: Holy Men and Their Associates in the Early Roman Empire (London and New York, 1994).
M. Beard and J. North (eds.), Pagan Priests: Religion and Power in the Ancient World (Ithaca, 1989).
A.S. Benjamin, "The Altars of Hadrian in Athens and Hadrian's Panhellenic Program," Hesperia 32 (1963) 57-86.
G.W. Bowersock, Augustus and the Greek World (Oxford, 1965).
G.W. Bowersock, "Greek Intellectuals and the Imperial Cult in the Second Century AD," in Le culte des souverains dans l'empire romain, W. den Boer (ed.), (Geneva, 1973) 179-206.
T.R.S. Broughton, "Roman Landholding in Asia Minor," Transactions of the American Philological Association 65 (1934) 207-39.
D.R. Edwards, Religion and Power: Pagans, Jews, and Christians in the Greek East (New York [Oxford UP], 1996).
J.R. Fears, "Ho demos ho Romaion Genius Populi Romani: A Note on the Origin of Dea Roma," Mnemosyne 31 (1978) 274.
J.R. Fears, The Cult of Jupiter and Roman Imperial Ideology (Berlin and New York, 1981).
D. Fishwick, "The Development of Provincial Ruler Worship in the Western Roman Empire," in Aufstieg und Niedergang der roemischen Welt II.16.2.1202.
C. Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York, 1973) 87-125.
R.L. Gordon, "The Real and the Imaginary: Production and Religion in the Graeco-Roman World," Art History 2 (1979) 5-34.
Chr. Habicht, Gottmenschentum und griechische Staedte, 2nd. ed. (German), (Munich, 1971).
C.P. Jones, Plutarch and Rome (Oxford, 1972).
J.A.O. Larsen, Representative Government in Greek and Roman History (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1955) 126-44.
J.H.W.G. Liebeschuetz, Continuity and Change in Roman Religion (Oxford, 1979).
S. MacCormack, "Change and Continuity in Late Antiquity: The Ceremony of Adventus," Historia 21 (1972) 721-52.
R. MacMullen, Paganism in the Roman Empire (New Haven, 1981).
D. Magie, Roman Rule in Asia Minor (Salem, N.H., repr. 1988).
R. Mellor, The Goddess Roma (Los Angeles, 1980).
R. Mellor, "The Goddess Roma," in Aufstieg und Niedergang der roemischen Welt II.17.2.950-1030.
F. Millar, "The Imperial Cult and the Persecutions," in Le culte des souverains dans l'empire romain, W. den Boer (ed.), (Geneva, 1973) 145-65.
F. Millar, The Emperor in the Roman World (Ithaca, repr. 1992).
A.D. Nock, Essays on Religion and the Ancient World (Oxford, repr. 1986).
D. Potter, Prophets and Emperors: Human and Divine Authority from Augustus to Theodosius (Cambridge, Mass., 1994).
S.R.F. Price, Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984).
S. Swain, Hellenism and Empire: Language, Classicism, and Power in the Greek World, AD 50-250 (Oxford, 1996).
L.R. Taylor, The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, Conn., 1931).
P. Veyne, Bread and Circuses: Historical Sociology and Political Pluralism, trans. B. Pearce (New York, 1992) 292-419.
H. Wagenvoort, Pietas: Selected Studies in Roman Religion (Leiden, 1980).
A. Wardman, Religion and Statecraft among the Romans (Baltimore, 1982).

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