Livestock Marketing in
Department of Public Administration
336 Eggers Hall
Office Phone: (315) 443-6146
Fax: (315) 443-9721
Livestock marketing is critical to
development of arid and semi-arid lands in
The project begins by conducting a
review of research on livestock marketing in
Participants will benefit from this workshop by gaining insights into issues and areas that are outside of their area of expertise. Donors will benefit from this project by having a readily accessible document that outlines current understanding of livestock marketing in this area, and highlights the practical implications of research for intervention design. Residents of semi arid and arid areas will benefit from this project if these insights allow improved design of interventions to improve livestock marketing and reduce poverty.
A. Project Rationale
Areas where livestock raising is
the main agricultural activity have the highest incidence of poverty in east
Arid and semi-arid lands are often limited in their resource diversity. The resource base in these areas is for the most part only suitable for raising livestock (Range Management Handbook Series, 1991-1992; UNESCO, 1984). Improvements to the livestock sector offer the most promising opportunity to move donor funded interventions from “relief” mode to “development” mode. First, livestock raising employs the majority of people in these areas, and is by far the largest source of revenue generation in these areas (Thornton et al. 2002). Second, beneficial income diversification, which is a stated goal of USAID in pastoral areas (USAID 2002), is likely to be based on initial capital generated by livestock sales (Little et al. 2000). Overall, targeted interventions in the livestock sector present the opportunity to reduce poverty, encourage economic growth, and generate capital for use in alternative income generating strategies.
Efforts to improve livestock
markets are an example of targeted interventions in the livestock sector. However, given the current state of knowledge,
it is not at all clear what type of interventions should be designed and at
what level. Current research tends to
find the interventions most appropriate to the level at which the analysis is
conducted. For example, working at the
micro level, McPeak (2002) finds Gabra herders in northern
In addition, there is a growing understanding of how markets can be used in crisis periods to reduce pastoral risk exposure (Hogg 1997; Aklilu and Wekesa, 2001; Aklilu and Wekesa, 2002). However, it is not yet clear how to integrate into market design transitions between “normal” marketing and “crisis” marketing.
What is missing is an overall sense of how interventions at different levels and for different states of the world fit together, how they should be prioritized, and how they should be sequenced. While changes at all levels are needed, where should we start? How will changes at one level influence changes at a different level? Are any types of interventions pre-conditions for success of other interventions? Most specifically, can we be sure that changes in the market structure at higher levels will lead to poverty reduction at the household level? Can we be sure that potential benefits to changed market conditions at the local level will not be unobtainable due to blockages at higher levels? Can we identify policies at the international level that will encourage trade, or are currently inhibiting trade? Can we be sure that market interventions designed for normal times are flexible enough to address needs in crisis periods? The goal of this program is to gather together researchers working on livestock marketing in Kenyan and Ethiopian marketsheds to begin developing an understanding of these issues, and how these marketsheds are influenced by larger regional and international factors.
B. Implementation Plan
The first objective of gathering
individuals who have studied livestock marketing in
The second step is to gather individuals who have particular insights into livestock
marketing in this area for a 2 ½ day workshop in
Researchers working on livestock
marketing issues in east
Provisional workshop topics:
· Marketing behavior at the household and individual level
· Market structure and operation at the meso level (Locations, Districts, PA’s, Zones, Regions)
Market structure and operation within the
· The regional livestock market and the prospects for international trade
· The role of markets in crisis periods
· Linking our analysis of livestock markets at different levels and during different time periods (crisis versus normal).
For these topics, the goal of the workshop is to specify what we already know, and outline what we need to investigate in the future.
From the preliminary work undertaken for the first step described above, a list of possible attendees includes:
· Patti Kristjanson, Simeon Ehui, and Tom Randolph, ILRI
· Julius Kilungo and Elliot Mghenyi, Tegemeo
· Francis Chabari, CORDAID
· Yakob Aklilu and Chip Stem, OAU-IBAR
· Gabremadhi Elani, IFPRI
· Chris Delgado, IFPRI
· Jean Ensminger, Caltech
· Winnie Luseno, RTI
· Were Omamo, not sure at the moment
· Stephen Mbogoh, Drylands Research
Fred Zaal and Ton Dietz,
· John Morton, NRI
· Nick Maudner, FEWS-NET
· Kevin Smith, Diana Putnam, Meg Brown, USAID
A second objective of the workshop is to identify gaps in knowledge that are research priorities. By the end of the workshop, topics needing further study will be identified. Proposals to research these topics will be solicited in the two months following the workshop. By the end of June, sub-contracts will be allocated to the proposals that best address the research gaps identified in the workshop. By the end of September, these commissioned studies will be completed.
Workshop participants will be asked
if they are willing to contribute a 10 to 20 page brief that describes the
current state of knowledge in their area of expertise. These will be used to develop chapters in the
final report of this project. In
addition, the commissioned studies will be summarized in chapter form. A final output of the project will be an
edited volume that presents an overall view of livestock marketing in east
C. Summary of Timeline:
· December 2002 budget and proposal finalized with GL-CRSP
January 2002- Graduate Assistant at SU
identifies participants not listed on the original proposal working on
livestock marketing issues in
· January 2002 – work continues identifying individuals and groups, resulting in review of the literature document available by February / March 2003 (before or at the workshop)
· January 2003 – workshop date, venue, and purpose mailed to individuals who are potentially interested in attending
February – April 2003 – receive and organize
list of attendees. Finalize literature
review document. Work with in country (
March 2003 – workshop in
April 2003 - a research agenda generated by the
workshop provided to the GL-CRSP management entity. This includes a summary of the findings of
the workshop, an agenda for further follow on study proposals, and the outlines
of an overall research agenda on livestock marketing in
· April -May 2003 – select follow on study proposals
May 2003 – August 2003 – implement follow on
studies. These will be reviewed during a
· September 2003 – conclude follow on studies and begin modifying final reports into book chapter form.
· By end of calendar year 2003 – produce draft of an edited volume.
4) Team Function
For this short project, John McPeak
will serve as the only team member.
McPeak is an economist who has conducted extensive research in pastoral
areas. McPeak recently returned from three
years working in northern
5) Developmental Relevance
Development of livestock marketing in pastoral areas has been identified as a priority by donors (USAID 2002). Currently, there is no reference document that collects information on research findings on livestock marketing on which to base these interventions. Further, until such a collection of information takes place, it is not possible to identify where there are research gaps. Defining livestock marketing interventions that will succeed requires they be designed with the best information possible. The impact of this project will be measured by the extent to which policy makers utilize the collected insights of researchers active in this field in their program design.
6) Biographical Sketch
available on request.
Aklilu, Y. and M. Wekesa (2002)
Aklilu, Y. (2001) Presentation to the
Pastoral Coordination Workshop, November 27, Safari Park Hotel,
Aklilu, Y. and M. Wekesa. (2001)
Livestock and Livelihoods in Emergencies: Lessons learnt from the 1999-2001 emergency
response in the pastoral sector of
Barrett,C. F. Chabari, D. Bailey, D. L. Coppock and P.
Livestock Pricing in the Northern Kenyan Rangelands. Mimeo.
Coppock, L., P. Little, C. Barrett, A. Aboud. (1997) Pastoral Risk Management Project Proposal. GL-CRSP.
Little, P., K. Smith, B. Cellarius, D. Coppock, and C. Barrett. (2001) Avoiding Disaster: Diversification and Risk Management among East African Herders in Development and Change. 32(3)
(2002) Contrasting Income Shocks
with Asset Shocks: Livestock Sales in
McPeak, J. and C. Barrett. (2001) Differential Risk Exposure and Stochastic Poverty Traps Among East African Herders in The American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 83(3) 674-679
Range Management Handbook of
UNESCO (1984). Integrated Project In Arid
Lands. Technical Report A-6, Part
1, Integrated Resource Assessment.
USAID (2002) Pastoral Coordination Workshop Cable – Final.